The movement then developed along socially utilitarian lines. The "soaring" house is located in the VDNH district on Mira Avenue. Constructivist Moscow Map. Muscovites appreciated the peculiarity of its construction, giving the building nicknames such as "centipede" and "octopi." Not only leading examples of Moscow Constructivist architecture. Though it remained unbuilt, the materials—glass and steel—and its futuristic ethos and political slant (the movements of its internal volumes were meant to symbolise revolution and the dialectic) set the tone for the projects of the 1920s.[4]. Construction (1929-1930)by [Lazar Khidekel], Dubrovskiy Electro Power Station S.M. A remarkable element of the construction was a two-level tower with an observation deck, where students could watch the stars and monitor weather changes. Melnikov House near Arbat Street in Moscow. [8] Flats were built in a Constructivist idiom in Kharkiv, Moscow and Leningrad and in smaller towns. The leading rationalist Ladovsky designed his own, rather different kind of mass housing, completing a Moscow apartment block in 1929. Candies, cigarettes and chocolate were united by the slogan "Nowhere but in Mosselprom!" But despite the project’s enormous potential, buildings in Moscow would remain “cornered,” and Melnikov’s House was turned into a branch department of the Schusev State Architecture Museum. Another famous modernist, Erich Mendelsohn, designed Leningrad's Red Banner Textile Factory and popularised Constructivism in his book Russland, Europa, Amerika. In this special feature, In Your Pocket looks at the architectural changes in the Russian capital during the Soviet years, from constructivism to art deco and Stalin style to brutalism. Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919, which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art. September 10, 2020. Under threat of demolition, it is at the top of UNESCO's list of "Endangered Buildings". Constructivism had a great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing major trends such as Bauhaus and the De Stijl movement. His disurbanism proposed a system of one-person or one-family buildings connected by linear transport networks, spread over a huge area that traversed the boundaries between the urban and agricultural, in which it resembled a socialist equivalent of Frank Lloyd Wright's Broadacre City. In the Narkomfim building, the ideas of communal living are being experimented with.There are different types of accommodation units in the building, some large, some small, but all of them are two-level (though with one entrance). Initially the reaction was towards an art decoesque Classicism that was initially inflected with Constructivist devices, such as in Iofan's House on Embankment of 1929–32. Melnikov would design the Soviet Pavilion at the Paris Exposition of Decorative Arts of 1925, which popularised the new style, with its rooms designed by Rodchenko and its jagged, mechanical form. The driving design concept was to separate and maximise common areas from the living space, which was minimised down to sleeping space only – all possessions had to be stored in lockers in communal areas. Constructivism (architecture) Russian Architecture: The Hyperboloid lattice shell of Shukhov Tower in Moscow: Noitrotsky: Zuev: Lattice shells of the Shukhov Towers on the Oka River (near Nizhny Novgorod, Russia), 1929: KHARKOV: Chekists_village: Melnikov : The Melnikov House, Konstantin Melnikov, Moscow, 1929 : Moscow,_Narkomzem_by_Alexey_Shchusev: photo-montage of Wolkenbugel El … There was also the critique that the style merely copied the forms of technology while using fairly routine construction methods. Публикация от The Constructivist Project (@theconstructivistproject), Relics of Constructivist architecture in post-Soviet & former Eastern Bloc countries (PHOTOS). [4] Housing, especially collective housing in specially designed dom kommuny to replace the collectivised 19th century housing that was the norm, was the main priority of this group. Konstantin Melnikov created the plan for another club. It was initially 350m tall. The main idea of Constructivism was to unite form and purpose in construction. The map features workers’ clubs, schools, factory kitchens, garages, communal housing, factories, bathhouses and even the first soviet crematorium and columbarium. https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Constructivist_architecture [5] Among the architects affiliated to the ASNOVA (Association of New Architects) were El Lissitzky, Konstantin Melnikov, Vladimir Krinsky and the young Berthold Lubetkin. The Narkomfin Building is a block of flats at 25, Novinsky Boulevard, in the Central district of Moscow, Russia. Everything. Architectural diversity is what makes Moscow a great place for travel! The ones that are still visible to this day are, of course, in the city’s architecture. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 it turned its attentions to the new social demands and industrial tasks required of the new regime. Two distinct threads emerged, the first was encapsulated in Antoine Pevsner's and Naum Gabo's Realist manifesto which was concerned with space and rhythm, the second represented a struggle within the Commissariat for Enlightenment between those who argued for pure art and the Productivists such as Alexander Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova and Vladimir Tatlin, a more socially-oriented group who wanted this art to be absorbed in industrial production.[3]. Constructivism can indeed be defined as a movement, as it gathered around manifestos, even more than one.The Realism Manifesto (1920) by Naum Gabo and Anton Pevsner, and the Productivist Group Program (1920) by Rodchenko, Vesnin, Liubov Popova and Varvara Stepanova (later integrated in Konstruktivizm by Gan, 1922) would embody the two different natures of arts during the Revolution … The end result is a H shaped building: a block of public services connected to a study block by an eight storey, 200 metre long, corridor of dormitories. Abstract and austere, the movement aimed to reflect modern industrial society and urban space, while rejecting decorative stylization in favor of the industrial assemblage of materials. Constructivist architecture emerged from the wider Constructivist art movement, which grew out of Russian Futurism. Many of the Constructivists hoped to see their ambitions realised during the 'Cultural Revolution' that accompanied the first five-year plan. Following Derrida’s theories and the “avant-gardist” approach of Russian Constructivism, architects began exploring spaces and volumes. During the Russian Civil War the UNOVIS group centered on Kasimir Malevich and Lissitzky designed various projects that forced together the 'non-objective' abstraction of Suprematism with more utilitarian aims, creating ideal Constructivist cities— see also El Lissitzky's Prounen-Raum, the 'Dynamic City' (1919) of Gustav Klutsis; Lazar Khidekel's Workers Club (1926) and his Dubrovka Power Plant and first Sots Town (1931–33). The idea was that down the road all of Moscow could be filled with round buildings instead “Stalinki” and “Khrushevki.” Konstantin Melnikov, the project’s creator, claimed that the cylindrical construction would make it possible to save a great deal of money on building materials. [6], Projects from 1923 to 1935 like Lissitzky and Mart Stam’s Wolkenbügel horizontal skyscrapers and Konstantin Melnikov’s temporary pavilions showed the originality and ambition of this new group. Besides the world-famous Kremlin ensemble, the Seven Sisters High-rises and the Bolshoi theatre, there are quite a lot of other different unique and interesting architectural buildings. The height of the tower was halved and used lighter materials. The functionality emphasized in the construction of the house-commune corresponded to the strict daily regime of its inhabitants. Mar 26, 2018 - Explore Nicole Snowhite's board "Entwurf 2. Regional administration building, 1930–1932. Designed by Moisei Ginzburg, it is now a Cultural Heritage Monument on the Russian cultural heritage register. However, the ATS was demolished in 2016, although Muscovites stubbornly try to bring it back to life. Share on Facebook. There was also the critique that the style merely copied the forms of technology while using fairly routine construction methods. Communal facilities dominated the living spaces, as residents shared kitchens and laundry rooms, in … Though a listed "Cultural Heritage Monument" on the Russian cultural heritage register, it was in a deteriorating state for many years. The building is also an example of Constructivism OSA architecture. Semester Melnikov house" on Pinterest. This consisted of a skyscraper-sized library, a planetarium and dome, all linked together by a monorail; or Georgy Krutikov's self-explanatory Flying City, an ASNOVA project that was intended as a serious proposal for airborne housing. This version was cancelled due to the lack of iron in the immediately post-revolutionary country. 0. El Lissitzky also popularised the style abroad with his 1930 book The Reconstruction of Architecture in Russia. Constructivist housing, Zamoskvorechye, Moscow.jpg 1,000 × 1,333; 144 KB May 22, 2016. Clearly Modernist competition entries were made by the Vesnin brothers and Ivan Leonidov for the Narkomtiazhprom project in Red Square, 1934, another unbuilt Stalinist edifice. For a few years some structures were designed in a composite style sometimes called Postconstructivism. Their book included only one building from the USSR, an electrical laboratory by a government team led by Nikolaev. The city-planning of Le Corbusier found brief favour, with the architect writing a 'reply to Moscow' that later became the Ville Radieuse plan, and designing the Tsentrosoyuz government building with the Constructivist Nikolai Kolli. Despite the ambitiousness of many Constructivist proposals for reconstructed cities, there were fairly few examples of coherent Constructivist town planning. Beginning in 1925 communal housing was designed for the area by architects like A. Gegello and OSA's Alexander Nikolsky, as well as public buildings like the Kirov Town Hall by Noi Trotsky (1932–4), an experimental school by G.A Simonov and a series of Communal laundries and kitchens, designed for the area by local ASNOVA members.[15]. Though the openwork Shukhov tower is extremely light, it is still extremely durable. The Narkomfin, the poster child for Constructivist architecture designed by Moisey Ginzburg and Ignaty Milinis in 1928, had been slowly falling into a … written by Vladimir Mayakovsky. Neo-Russian Architecture. The movement was in favour of art as a practice for social purposes. “Today, Constructivism – the Constructivist style in architecture … The fantastical element also found expression in the work of Yakov Chernikhov, who produced several books of experimental designs—most famously Architectural Fantasies (1933)—earning him the epithet 'the Soviet Piranesi'. The architect divided the building into two parts that are connected by a spacious hall. This was not limited to design however but also art, sculpture, architecture, fashion and theatrical design. Deconstructivism evokes the dynamism of Constructivism, though without the social aspect, as in the work of Coop Himmelb(l)au. Designed by Moisei Ginzburg and Ignaty Milinis in 1928, this great example of the constructivist architecture is located in the centre of Moscow, on Novinsky boulevard. Tweet on Twitter. Novosibirsk. Constructivist style clubs were built in Moscow in two waves. Get the week's best stories straight to your inbox. Immediately after the Russian Civil War, the USSR was too impoverished to commission any major new building projects. Meanwhile, many of the original Constructivist buildings are poorly preserved or in danger of imminent demolition. Nonetheless, the Soviet avant-garde school Vkhutemas started an architectural wing in 1921, which was led by the architect Nikolai Ladovsky, which was called ASNOVA (association of new architects). Similar buildings were built on Smolensk Boulevard and Begovaya Street. It has left marked effects on later developments in architecture. Last isolated constructivist buildings were launched in 1933–1935, such as Panteleimon Golosov's Pravda building (finished 1935),[17] the Moscow Textile Institute (finished 1938) or Ladovsky's rationalist vestibules for the Moscow Metro. Specifically, ASNOVA Constructivism through projects like the Rusakov Workers’ Club targeted individuals’ emotions. Vasilyeostrovskaya pumping station near the harbor in Leningrad. These unusual constructions are not just of interest to professional architects though. Click here to find out more. De Volharding, mixed-use building by Jan Buijs (The Hague, 1927–28), Russian Academy of Architecture. [7] This was built in 1926–7 and designed by Grigori Barkhin[8], A colder and more technological Constructivist style was introduced by the 1923/4 glass office project by the Vesnin brothers for Leningradskaya Pravda. Innovative engineering techniques allowed the builders use less than 13 tons of metal per meter of the tower—almost two times lighter than the Eiffel Tower’s weight per meter! Constructivist architecture, or ‘constructivism’, is a form of modern architecture that developed in the Soviet Union in the 1920s. In the center of the architectural composition, there is a glass cylinder with other geometric shapes that seem to be lying on top of it. Although the station was designed by the architect Martynovich in late 1920s, its laconic facade and the rhythm of its narrow windows made the building look quite fresh and modern even by today’s standards. Nov 7, 2017 - Some old photos from the archives of the Shchusev Architecture Museum in Moscow to show readers how constructivist buildings looked having just been built. Spectator stands were located in three cubes sticking out from the main facade. Upload media Wikipedia: Instance of: architectural style: Subclass of: constructivism, Modern Movement: Authority control Q841977 Library of Congress authority ID: sh85031454. Housing projects like the Narkomfin were designed for the attempts to reform everyday life in the 1920s, such as collectivisation of facilities, equality of the sexes and collective raising of children, all of which fell out of favour as Stalinism revived family values. However, the most interesting part is hidden from passers-by on the east side of the building: the recreation of a graffiti-like painting of Alexander Rodchenko. Inspired by the Bauhaus and the wider constructivist art movement that emerged from Russian Futurism, constructivist architecture is characterised by a combination of modern technology and engineering methods and the socio-political ethos of Communism. Constructivist architecture was a constructivist style of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s. The 1932 competition for the Palace of the Soviets, a grandiose project to rival the Empire State Building, featured entries from all the major Constructivists as well as Walter Gropius, Erich Mendelsohn and Le Corbusier. An interactive map of the former Soviet Union’s Constructivist architectural heritage went online just days before the city of Moscow published a list of 4,500 apartment buildings proposed for demolition as part of a plan to relocate up to 1.6 million residents. Kirov and Residential settlement Doubrovskaya HPP. Designed by Moisei Ginzburg, it is now a Cultural Heritage Monument on the Russian cultural heritage register. Not only architecture icons, but also residential buildings, constructivist districts and settlements within the limits of Moscow Ring Road (MKAD). Their integration of the avant-garde and everyday life has parallels with the Situationists, particularly the New Babylon project of Guy Debord and Constant Nieuwenhuys. Communal facilities dominated the living spaces, as residents shared kitchens and laundry rooms, in … Constructivist art had attempted to apply a three-dimensional cubist vision to wholly abstract non-objective 'constructions' with a kinetic element. The 1932 competition for the Palace of the Soviets, a grandiose project to rival the Empire State Building, featured entries from all the major Constructivists as well as Walter Gropius, Erich Mendelsohn and Le Corbusier. There were also projects for Suprematist skyscrapers called 'planits' or 'architektons' by Kasimir Malevich, Lazar Khikeidel - Cosmic Habitats (1921–22), Architectons (1922-1927), Workers Club (1926), Communal Dwelling (Коммунальное Жилище)(1927), A. Nikolsky and L. Khidekel - Moscow Cooperative Institute (1929). Architect Ilya Golosov, heavily influenced by Cubism, was behind the creation of the House of Culture on Lesnaya Street. Constructivism is one of the few original Russian architectural styles that have been influential throughout the world. No city witnessed more changes than Moscow did. This was taken to a more extreme level by the OSA theorist Mikhail Okhitovich. And in 1928 he began the construction of the Tsentrosoyuz Building on Myasnitskaya Street in Moscow. Constructivism took ideas from existing movements like Suprematism, Cubism, Futurism and Dada, but instead of using traditional artistic composition to create work and objects they replaced this with construction, hence the name constructivism. Before that, the 1930s constructivist monument, an icon of collective housing architecture, had been in a dilapidated state for decades. Explore. Dizaino Studija Baklazanas included also some remarkable elements of Russian industrial art from the 1920s and 1930s, a font by famous Russian type designer Yuri Gordon and proletarian poetries from the 20s. Designed by Ivan Nikolav in 1931, the Moscow building was designed to accommodate 2000 students. The graphic-design highlights over 180 neglected avant-garde buildings in the Russian capital. The state-run Mosselprom department store of 1924 was also an early modernist building for the new consumerism of the New Economic Policy, as was the Vesnin brothers' Mostorg store, built three years later. Unlike the famous architect’s many other projects, this one was built almost exactly as it was drawn on paper. [9] OSA published a magazine, SA or Contemporary Architecture from 1926 to 1930. Публикация от The Constructivist Project (@theconstructivistproject)19 Мар 2017 в 7:40 PDT. High Tech architecture also owes a debt to Constructivism, most obviously in Richard Rogers' Lloyd's building. Chto Delat/What is to be Done issue on Narvskaya Zastava: See interview with film director Isa Willinger here: Short film on the heavily Constructivist-influenced buildings that Berthold Lubetkin designed for Dudley Zoo in the 1930s, People's Commissariat for the Internal Affairs (NKVD), Learn how and when to remove this template message, NKVD House (Serebrennikovskaya Street 16), Novosibirsk Chemical Engineering Technical School, NKVD House (Serebrennikovskaya Street 23), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/apr/15/radio-tower-campaign-russia-foster, "Izvestia Building Moscow by Grigory Barkhin", http://www.kharkov.ua/about/svobody-e.htm, "Narkomzem (Agriculture Ministry) Moscow by Aleksey Shchusev", http://www.chtodelat.org/images/pdfs/Chtodelat_07.pdf, http://www.enlight.ru/camera/354/index_e.html, http://awayfromallsuns.de/de/on_constructivism/, Documentary on Moscow's Constructivist buildings, Heritage at Risk: Preservation of 20th Century Architecture and World Heritage, Archive Constructivist Photos and Designs at polito.it, The Moscow Times' Guide to Constructivist buildings, Guardian article on preserving Constructivist buildings, Constructivism in Architecture at Kmtspace, Campaign for the Preservation of the Narkomfin Building, Constructivist designs at the Russian Utopia Depository, Constructivism and Postconstructivism at St Petersburg's, Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constructivist_architecture&oldid=995733697, Articles with dead external links from July 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from July 2008, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Stadium for metal workers "Red Profintern" (1927) by [Aleksandr Nikolsky] and [Lazar Khidekel], Kirov District House of Soviets (1935) by, Moscow District House of Soviets (1935) by Igor Fomin, Igor Daugul and Boris Serebrovsky, 1st House of Lensovet (1934) by Evgeny Levinson and Igor Fomin, Club for the shipyard workers in Leningrad. The building is also an example of Constructivism OSA architecture. The popularity of the new aesthetic led to traditionalist architects adopting Constructivism, as in Ivan Zholtovsky's 1926 MOGES power station or Alexey Shchusev's Narkomzem offices, both in Moscow. Constructivism Architecture .. Melnikov House and his Bakhmetevsky Bus Garage are fine examples of the tensions between individualism and utilitarianism in Constructivism. The Linear City was propagandised by the head of the Finance Commissariat Nikolay Milyutin in his book Sozgorod, aka Sotsgorod (1930). A split occurred in 1922 when Pevsner and Gabo emigrated. Rationalist buildings were still common in industrial architecture, but extinct in urban projects. If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material. The styles of the old world were also revived, with the Moscow Metro in particular popularising the idea of 'workers' palaces'. At the same time as this foray into the everyday, outlandish projects were designed such as Ivan Leonidov's Lenin Institute, a high tech work that bears comparison with Buckminster Fuller. A walk through Moscow center, looking at some constructivist buildings of 1920's and 1930's, part 2. Vyacheslav Vladimirov designed the first club for the metal workers’ labor union. However, this coincided with widespread criticism of Modernism, which was always difficult to sustain in a still mostly agrarian country. The first part contained a library and hobby centers, and an assembly hall was situated in the second part. The duplex apartments and collective facilities of the OSA group were a major influence on his later work. The 'Russian avant garde' created the 20th-century's most intensive art and architectural movement. by [Aleksandr Nikolsky] and [Lazar Khidekel], Pumping station. The movement rejected decorative stylization in favor of the industrial assemblage of materials. Club of Slovak Artists, Bratislava, Slovakia, 1926, Former hospital Bezručova by Alois Balán and Jiří Grossmann, Bratislava (Slovakia), 1939. This building, created by Ivan Nikolaev, was a student dormitory. [16] The winning entry by Boris Iofan marked the start of eclectic historicism of Stalinist Architecture, a style which bears similarities to Post-Modernism in that it reacted against modernist architecture's cosmopolitanism, alleged ugliness and inhumanity with a pick and mix of historical styles, sometimes achieved with new technology. The disurbanists and urbanists proposed projects for new cities such as Magnitogorsk were often rejected in favour of the more pragmatic German architects fleeing Nazism, such as 'May Brigade' (Ernst May, Mart Stam, Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky), the 'Bauhaus Brigade' led by Hannes Meyer, and Bruno Taut. This school was built based on then new models of education: recreation spots, workshops and laboratories became more significant, and therefore, more spacious. The first video tour in English about monuments of Constructivism in Yekaterinburg, Russia. Collective housing projects that were built included Ivan Nikolaev's Communal House of the Textile Institute (Ordzhonikidze St, Moscow, 1929–1931), and Ginzburg's Moscow Gosstrakh flats and, most famously, his Narkomfin Building. [4] Another glimpse of a Constructivist lived environment is visible in the popular science fiction film Aelita, which had interiors and exteriors modelled in angular, geometric fashion by Aleksandra Ekster. Another famous early Constructivist project was the Lenin Tribune by El Lissitzky (1920), a moving speaker's podium. 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